Wednesday, 20 January 2010

Gently Down The Stream

Ed Leedskalnin said a lot of interesting things. One of the things he once described was the how the Earth behaved under the influence of the Sun. He talked of tiny little "magnets" coming down from the Sun, and that these make the Earth spin on its axis. Leedskalnin describes each magnet as being so tiny that they "go through everything" and that they are smaller than a "particle of light". The following extract was taken from a reprint of a Ed Leedskalnin "advertisement" that was featured in a 1945 issue of The Miami Daily News:

Every form of existence, whether it be rock tree or animal, has a beginning and an end, but the three things that all matter is constructed from has no beginning and no end. They are the North and South poles individual magnets, and the neutral particles of matter. These three different things are the construction blocks of everything.

When Leedskalnin speaks of "neutral particles of matter", he appears to be referring to the atom. The atom, or "donutom" as we say round here, is made up with protons, and electrons. I think that the proton and the electron are vortices in the incompressible fluid of the aether. I think that the fluid aether is made up of particles that are much smaller than these vortices. If you were to ask me what these particles were made of, then I would say that the closest thing which it resembled would probably be carbon. I think that when Leedskalnin refers to "North and South poles individual magnets" he means them to be indivual particles of the aether. I think that these "magnets" could be the very same atomically tiny particles which Tesla was known to refer to as "neutrons".

In his book "Magnetic Current", which for me personally remains highly influential (though I could never claim to understand most of it), Leedskalnin reveals a marvelous comprehension of the invisible world, and those invisible forces, which surround and rule all of us. I've touched on Leedskalnin a couple of times in this blog, and I feel that he's become a "friend of the show". Personally, I have a lot of respect for Ed Leedskalnin. (If the poor guy's love-life doesn't bring a tear to your eye, then you must be the proud owner of a heart that's been turned to stone). I hope that one day he recieves the adulation that he so richly deserves. I've included some extracts from the book below. You can find the entire book here, thanks to:

"The earth itself is a great big magnet. In general these North and South Pole individual magnets are circulating in the same way as in the permanent magnet metal. The North Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's South Pole and are running around in the earth's North Pole and back to its own pole, and South Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North Pole and are running around, and in earth South Pole and back to its own end. Then both North and South Pole individual magnets start to run over and over again.

In a permanent magnet bar between the poles there is a semi-neutral part where there is not much going in or out, but on the earth there is no place where the magnets are not going in or out, but the magnets are running in and out at pole ends more than at the Equator.

As I said in the beginning, the North and South Pole magnets they are the cosmic force. They hold together this earth and everything on it, and they hold together the moon, too.

North and South Pole magnets make the lightning, in earth's North hemisphere the South Pole magnets are going up and the North pole magnets are coming down in the same flash. In the earth's South hemisphere the North Pole magnets are going up and the South Pole magnets are coming down in the same flash. The North lights are caused by the North and South Pole magnets passing in concentrated streams, but the streams are not as much concentrated as they are in the lightning.

North and South Pole magnets are not only holding together the earth and moon, but they are turning the earth around on its axis. Those magnets which are coming down from the sun they are hitting their own kind of magnets which are circulating around the earth and they hit more on the East side than on the West side, and that is what makes the earth turn around."

I wonder why is it that more magnets hit the East side of our planet than the West side? If I was able to observe Earth from somewhere above the Sun, I would see the left-side, the West side, continously revolve to face the Sun's energy anew. On the other hand, the East side will have recieved more recent exposure to sunlight. If magnets are being sent down from the Sun, then it would make sense that more would accumulate on the East side, than the West side, which having experienced night-time, means that it has not been exposed to sunlight, and the incoming "magnets", for a number of hours. At this present time, this remains something of an unsolved problem that we shall no doubt want to return to. For the moment though, let us direct our attention back to the surface of the Earth.

"On the equator the Sun is not overhead every day, as some people think. In fact that happens only on two days of the year, the equinoxes. The solstices are the dates that the Sun stays farthest away from the zenith, only reaching an altitude of 66.56° either to the north or the south. The only thing special about the equator is that all days of the year, solstices included, have roughly the same length of about 12 hours, so that it makes no sense to talk about summer and winter. Instead, tropical areas often have wet and dry seasons."

"The top diagram shows how the strength of sunlight is less nearer the Earth's poles. The lower map shows how much solar energy hits the Earth's surface after clouds and dust have reflected and absorbed some solar energy." Author: William M. Connolley using HadCM3 data.

It is not only the energy from the Sun which beats a path westward at the equator - it is also joined by a prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds which are known as the trade winds. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern hemisphere. These winds either side of the equator remind me of the wake left behind a speeding boat. I wonder if something is speeding toward the West which is then dragging the trade winds behind it? I imagine it as something which is acting like a rip-cord which is squeezed between the two gyres, so that when you pull it, it manages to get both gyres spinning. Am I looking for an easterly wind which might look something like a jet stream?

~~The Influential Jet Stream By José Reyes

A "Jet Stream" is an amazing phenomenon of wind current which twirls around our planet, capturing and changing anything in its path. These giant, so-called "river" of winds can be several hundred miles wide, 1 to 2 miles in depth and can be found from as low as 12,000 to as high as 80,000 feet above the surface of the Earth and can reach the speed of 400 miles an hour.

There are basically 5 major jet streams, the Polar jet streams (North and South) of the Equator, the Sub-Tropical jet streams, (North/South) of the equator and the Equatorial Jet Stream, just North of the equator.

The Polar jet streams are the most prominent and are year round events while the Sub-Tropical jet streams and the Tropical jet Stream are more prominent when it is summer in the Northern hemisphere. The Earth's rotation is the principle the reason why the jet streams flow from West to East in the Northern Hemisphere and also in the Southern Hemisphere except for the Equatorial Jet Stream, it is an easterly wind (East to West) but travels very little and at a certain time of the year."

Image: courtesy of NASA

I'm suspicious of the reason given for the jet streams flowing from West to East. If they are due to the rotation of the Earth - then why is it that the Equatorial Jet Stream chooses to go in the opposite direction to the other jet streams? And the EJS wasn't quite what I had hoped for. I was hoping for something which is a continuous, year long event. This stream only travels from Asia to Africa and is strongest during the summer months of July and August.

Underneath this jet stream, during the same summer months, another jet stream sometimes forms over Africa. It is much lower in the atmosphere, around 12,000 - 15,000 ft, and weaker than the EJS, but it can influence the weather quite dramatically over the southern Atlantic and Caribbean. Why do these easterly jet streams appear only in the summer months?

To summarise then, the surface of the Earth is moving at very fast speeds compared to those experienced by the Earth's inner core. If we were to try and apply this in terms of density in the aether field, the Earth's central core, a conduit that runs from North to South pole and looks a lot like an apple core, thus emerges as being slow-moving and incredibly dense. As we move further and further away from the core, to the surface of the planet, and especially at the equator, we are finding speeds which are getting faster and faster, and thereby less and less dense. Abiding by Bernoulli's Principle, planet Earth could be seen as a core of high pressure being surrounded by a wall which is reaching lower, and lower pressures. I think, and it's only early stages, but I think these variations in pressure in the aether field have a lot to do with gravity.

Many thanks:
Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy By Thomas Valone;wap2
Energy Demand and Climate Change: Issues and Resolutions By Franklin Hadley Cocks–-precession/
History of life By Richard Cowen
Mathematical tracts on the lunar and planetary theories, the figure of the ... By Sir George Biddell Airy

Wednesday, 13 January 2010


"The greatest enemy will hide in the last place you would ever look."
~~Julius Caesar

Galileo Zooms in on Jupiter's Red Spot Credit: The Galileo Project, JPL, NASA

"One of the most strongly identified characteristics of the GRS is its color. Although this characteristic is the most defining, the reason behind the color has yet to be defined. It is thought that some chemical that is dredged up within the vortex of the storm reacts with the light of the Sun to give the storm its reddish hue, but this has yet to be confirmed. The storm has been observed ranging in color from extremely red to unbelievably pale. Several NASA probes sent into the atmosphere of Jupiter to better understand the chemical composition of the cloud have been ruthlessly ripped apart and crushed within the planets enormous atmospheric pressure with little to no data sent back. The winds within the vortex of the GRS can exceed 400 mph! Hurricane Katrina’s sustained a maximum wind speed of 175 mph. The destructive force within the GRS is unparalleled by anything that we can experience on Earth. The highest clouds of the storm extend eight kilometers higher than the rest of the clouds within the planet’s atmosphere."

I wonder if the reddish hue is brought to the Great Red Spot from the outside and above rather than from below?

"Washington, Jan 15 (ANI): Researchers, using spacecraft observations, have shed new light on the great red spot on Jupiter, showing how the spot which is inaccurately described as a storm is actually far calmer than other parts of the planets atmosphere.

According to a report in Discovery news, numerical modeling of the spot, as well as laboratory experiments trying to reproduce the dynamics of the Great Red Spot indicate that it is quite different than earlier believed.

“The Red Spot is very quiet at its center,” said Jupiter researcher Philip Marcus of the University of California at Berkeley.

In fact, the winds at the center are just 9 or 10 miles per hour, whereas around the perimeter they exceed 200 miles per hour."

This revelation about it being calm at the centre of the Great Red Spot is pretty interesting. The calm at the centre of a storm is something which also corresponds directly with the behaviour of low pressure weather systems here on Earth. We often refer to this calm centre as the "eye of the storm".

"The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area and typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather of a cyclone occurs.

Eyewalls are typically circular; however, distinctly polygonal shapes ranging from triangles to hexagons occasionally occur."

There is another well-known perpetual anticyclone here on Earth which is notoriously calm at its centre, but then surrounded by a wall of strong currents. It is found at the heart of the Bermuda Triangle and is known as the Sargasso Sea.

Image: The Sargasso Sea is a region of slow-moving ocean currents surrounded by rapidly-moving ocean currents, such as the Gulf Stream to its east. It is located off the coast of Bermuda. In this composite image of night-time city lights, you can see the bigger cities in the brighter areas. Credit: NASA, DOD

"The Sargasso Sea occupies that part of the Atlantic between 20 o to 35 o North Latitude and 30 o to 70 o West Longitude. It is in complete contrast to the ocean around it. Its currents are largely immobile yet surrounded by some of the strongest currents in the world: The Florida, Gulf Stream, Canary, North Equatorial, Antilles, and Caribbean currents. These interlock to separate this sea from the rest of the tempestuous Atlantic, making its indigenous currents largely entropious. Therefore anything that drifts onto any of its surrounding currents eventually ends up in the Sargasso Sea amidst its expansive weed mats of sargassum. Because of the entropious currents, it is unlikely anything would ever drift out. The Sargasso Sea rotates slightly itself and even changes position as its surrounding currents change with weather and temperature patterns during different seasons."

Calm waters are also found sitting within all the major subtropical gyres of the oceans (i.e. North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Oceans). These subtropical gyres are all anticyclonic. The center of a subtropical gyre is a high pressure zone. The Sargasso Sea lies at the centre of the North Atlantic gyre. Circulation around a high pressure system is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

The eye at the centre of any cyclone or anticyclone is relatively calm when compared to the activity of the surrounding wall. With both types of vortex, cyclone or anticyclone, the wall has been seen to flow faster than the centre - regardless of whether the centre is percieved as being either a high or low pressure area.

There are five major ocean-wide gyres — the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, and Indian Ocean gyres.

Using the North Atlantic and South Atlantic Ocean gyres as an example, I think that they could be seen as two wheels, and that they are being turned by a force which moves between them at the equator. The North Atlantic rotates in a clockwise direction, while the South Atlantic rotates in a counter-clockwise direction. The upper kilometer of the subtropical gyres is primarily wind driven (Huang and Russell, 1994). It appears as if both gyres are being turned by a force which is moving along the surface of the equator from the East to the West - the same direction which light from the Sun follows on the face of the planet.

Looking for something moving westward near the equator, what we find squeezed between the North and South gyres of the Atlantic, and also assisting them, are the North and South Equatorial Currents. Between these sits the Equatorial Counter-Current, and this moves in the opposite direction to the equatorial currents - eastward.

On either side of the equator, in all ocean basins, there are two west flowing currents: the North and South Equatorial (Figure 8q-1). These currents flow between 3 and 6 kilometers per day and usually extend 100 to 200 meters in depth below the ocean surface. The Equatorial Counter Current, which flows towards the east, is a partial return of water carried westward by the North and South Equatorial currents. In El Niño years, this current intensifies in the Pacific Ocean.

The Sun is seen to move westward across the face of the planet because we are revolving eastward on our axis, which means that light from the Sun is joined by the North and South Equatorial Currents. In turn, these are complemented by trade winds, either side of the Equatorial Counter-Current, which push great volumes of water westward in the equatorial currents, raising the sea level in the West. Because the Earth revolves from West to East, it acts as if it is carrying the Equatorial Counter-Current with it. Quite why that is, simply evades me, for the moment at least.

The Earth's average speed of revolution about the Sun is 29.8 km/s. The Earth is spinning on its axis at a rate of 0.5 km/s. At the equator, the Earth's surface moves 40,000 kilometers in 24 hours. People at Earth's equator are moving at a speed of about 1,600 km/h - about a thousand miles an hour - due to Earth's rotation (that's faster than the speed of sound - 1,192 km/hr!) That speed decreases as you go in either direction toward Earth's poles. If you were standing directly on top of a pole it would take an entire day to spin round once on the spot!

It's the same sort of thing if you were standing at the very core of the Earth. The very centre of our planet is revolving very slowly when compared to the speed witnessed by an observer at the equator. At the core of the Earth it will still take you an entire day to turn around on the spot, but then just compare that to the feeling of acceleration on the Earth's surface. The Earth's atmosphere is known to revolve at the same speed as the surface of the planet. That would mean that the atmosphere is moving even faster than the Earth's surface.

From a stand-point way above the North pole, what you would see is the Earth revolving in a counterclockwise direction. If you were stood at the equator, you would see the Sun rising in the East and setting in the West, but really it is the Earth which is revolving around the Sun. If you were able to observe the Earth from the place of the Sun, you would see the Earth revolve with the left-side of the planet, the west side, continously turning to face fresh onslaught from the Sun's energy.

Because the equator is nearer to the energy of the Sun than the poles, the affects of solar energy at the equator are more intense than at the poles. One might also infer that the point of greatest resistance to the energy of the Sun is also at the equator. Just as the filament in a light bulb must offer resistance to an electric current to produce light and heat, then perhaps the same mechanism of resistance is in place at the interface between the Sun's energy and the atmosphere of Earth. If this is the case, then it shall be seen that the North and South poles are the points of least resistance to the Sun's energy, and they also happen to be the coldest places on the planet.

Saturday, 9 January 2010

Imagination Encircles The World

"I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world."
~~Albert Einstein

In his book "Simple Bodies of Chemistry", David Low suggests that oxygen is a hydrocarbonic compound that is 2 parts hydrogen to 6 parts carbon (H2C6). If I wanted to find one oxygen donutom, one half would consist of one part hydrogen, thereby implying the other half is 3 parts carbon (H C3). Oxygen, like most atoms, has a neutral electric charge.

A helium donutom is neutral because its charge is balanced between the hydrogen ion, and the electrion. I'm postulating that the electrion is not 1800 times smaller than the proton, but rather it is the same size, thereby giving it a charge which is 1800 times greater. Now that creates quite a variation in the difference between the two charges. In order for them to combine and create a neutral donutom, the gap between these charges has to be closed.

Franklin imagined electricity as being a type of invisible fluid that was present in all matter. When matter contained too little of the fluid it was negatively charged, and when it had an excess it was positively charged. Electric current is thus described as the rate of charge flow past a given point.

"Wind flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. This is due to density differences between the two air masses. Since stronger high-pressure systems contain cooler or drier air, the air mass is more dense and flows towards areas that are warm or moist, which are in the vicinity of low pressure areas in advance of their associated cold fronts. The stronger the pressure difference, or pressure gradient, between a high-pressure system and a low pressure system, the stronger the wind."

I think electric current is the fluid of the aether streaming not only from a high pressure area to a low pressure area - just like horizontal winds in a weather system - but also fluid streaming from a low pressure area to a high pressure area - similar to the vertical winds in a weather system. If you combine the two you get a loop, with energy going round the loop like the seats on a ferris wheel. This energy has to be moving at a constant rate because electricity has no frequency - but who's to say how variable that rate can be?

"According to Bernoulli's Principle, the greater the velocity of flow in a fluid, the greater the dynamic pressure, and the less the static pressure. In other words, slower-moving fluid exerts greater pressure than fast-moving fluid."

Previously, I have suggested that the electrion is a high pressure area with an excess of electric fluid, and that this is why it has such a high electric charge. I think that a charge is a vortex in the fluid of the aether. A problem arises though when I try to explain the behaviour of a high charge. Normally in weather systems, high pressure systems are synomynous with bright sunny days and calm weather - they are not reknowned for being centres of high activity.

Anticyclones are high pressure areas. With weather systems, in high pressure areas, the pressure increases towards the centre from the periphery. Vertical winds are drawn down into the centre of a high pressure system, whereas vertical winds move up the centre of a low pressure area. Low pressure systems are commonly known as cyclones. In the northern hemisphere, cyclones turn counterclockwise while anticyclones turn clockwise (in the southern hemisphere the direction is reversed).

"The greater the difference in air pressure between two competing systems, the greater the wind. And the greater the surface area covered by low pressure, the greater the size of the area of wind will be. Since strong wind is typically associated with storms, and since storms are characterized by low pressure, surf forecasters typically track and look for developing areas of low pressure, preferably large ones."

I looked for examples of high pressure systems in nature which might help explain the "stormy" potential energy of the electrion, but violent weather, such as hurricanes and tornadoes, is always associated with low pressure systems. As it happens there is supposed to be such a thing as a high pressure hurricane, but unfortunately it cannot be found here on Earth unless we have a good telescope, and that's because it belongs to another planet - Jupiter to be precise.

This image or video was catalogued by Jet Propulsion Lab of the United States National Aeronautics and Space

"The Great Red Spot, located in the southern hemisphere, holds title as Jupiter's largest anticyclone; spanning 12,500 miles wide, it is large enough to swallow Earth two to three times over.

Unlike the cyclonic storms on Jupiter, Earth's hurricanes and storms are associated with low-pressure systems and dissipate after days or weeks. The Great Red Spot, in comparison, is a high-pressure system that has been stable for more than 300 years, and shows no signs of slowing down."

Many thanks also:

Wednesday, 6 January 2010

"Omega - The Final Solution"

If you hook a man up to a piece of medical equipment called an electroencephalograph or EEG, its chart will display Delta, Alpha, Theta and Beta "brain" waves vibrating through a range of frequencies from about one to twenty-five cycles per second, with most of the meaningful activity in a central band between five and fifteen cycles per second. But if you then remove the electroencephalograph sensors from the man and push them deep into damp conductive earth instead, you will find the EEG chart faithfully displays Delta, Alpha, Theta and Beta waves in identical frequency ranges.

Indeed, if the medical sensors could be suitably adapted they would detect identical vibrations in air and "outer space" as well. Thus man is merely an integral part of an electromagnetic whole which embraces his eyes, the apparently empty space between his eyes and the hill, the hill itself, and the universe. Remove or even deflect any of the billions of particles comprising this electromagnetic whole, and man would be rendered incapable of seeing anything at all.

The source for all of this electromagnetic activity is the universe itself, with billions of stars emitting incalculable amounts of energy, in turn used or replicated by the planets.

by Joe Vialls

Saturday, 2 January 2010

Gas Bladder

Swimming is an act that requires much energy. A fish swims all the while without rest. How does it manage to do so?
~~G. VENKATARAMAN Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu

True. Swimming is an act that requires a lot of energy and that is why obese people are advised to swim besides regular exercises. But it is not true that a fish swims all the while without rest. In fact, it does not swim vigorously unless alerted. It mostly rests in suspension or moves occasionally but quietly. Such acts do not demand much energy.

Energy is needed in an act, according to laws of physics, only when such an act performs a finite amount of work and work is said to have been accomplished only when a body is displaced against some opposing force. A body under equilibrium or in a state of suspension hardly does any work or any work is done upon.

A normal fish has a unique anatomy that includes a gas bladder or swim bladder which offers an ability to the fish to control its buoyancy. The fish is, thus, able to stay in suspension at any desired depth and ascend or descend in quite pond water without having to spend much energy in such acts. The only energy it needs in such controls is just to inflate or deflate the gas bladder to the desired density (buoyancy).

The wedge-like shape of the fish balances it from gravitational pull while the mild jet power of the gills and the paddling power of the pelvic and pectoral fins help it make the gentle forward movement. The smoothness of the scales gives minimal friction with water matrix. The dorsal, fat and anal fins balance its body from toppling when the caudal fin negotiates steering.

Only when the fish is in fast flowing water and when it does not want to be carried along the flow or when it is hunted by its predator, does it need to do a real swimming (that needs to hold its own body relative to the frictional force of the flow) and to spend some energy. It must have that much energy lest it should be swept away along the currents. For all these acts, the energy needed is not astounding to fish’ capability.