ALFRED Wr STEWART, D.Sc.
PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN THE QUEKN's UNIVERS1TV OF BELFAST
When solids are bombarded with cathode rays, various gases seem to be given off; and the examination of these by the positive ray method yielded facts of some interest. The results point to the presence in the gas mixture of neon, helium, and a third substance to which the name X 3 has been given.
With regard to the sources of X 3 , it has been found that it is produced by the action of cathode rays upon a very varied series of substances. Platinum, palladium, aluminium, copper, zinc, iron, nickel, silver, gold, lead, graphite, diamond dust> lithium chloride, and other metallic salts as well as some meteorites have been. found to liberate the gas. The presence of mercury vapour in the bombardment tube diminishes the intensity of the line due to X 3 ; from which Thomson deduces that X 3combines with mercury vapour under the influence of the electric discharge.
If we assume that the maximum number of charges which can be carried by a particle is limited, there appear to be only two possible explanations for the X 3 line. It must be produced by something in which the ratio of mass to charge is three times that found in the case of a hydrogen atom. This can be accounted for by assuming that X 3 is either (1) a carbon atom carrying four electrical charges; or (2) a molecule containing three hydrogen atoms and carrying a unit charge.
With regard to the possibility that X 3 is a singly-charged molecule containing three hydrogen atoms, we have the following evidence. Whenever large amounts of X 3 are produced, spectroscopic examination detects the presence of a considerable quantity of hydrogen in the gas liberated by the cathode bombardment.
Thomson assumes that X 3 is really a triatomic molecule of hydrogen, H 3 ; and he considers it to be the hydrogen analogue of ozone. It is evidently more stable than ozone, as is seen from its resistance to high temperatures. No particular spectrum has been observed for X 3 ; for a mixture of it and hydrogen exhibits only the normal hydrogen spectrum.
Against this may be urged the evidence brought to light by Collie and H. S. Patterson in the course of work in a different field. 1 They found that when a heavy discharge is passed through a vacuum tube, quite considerable quantities of hydrogen can be made to disappear. For example, in one experiment, as much as 3* c.c. of hydrogen apparently vanished. A gas is produced * which gives a carbon spectrum ; and this gas, like X 3 , disappears when sparked with mercury vapour. Further, it is not easily condensed by the use of liquid air.
The fairest course in the matter appears to be to regard the problem of X 3 as still unsolved. It may be merely a carbon atom carrying four electrical charges; or it may be an allotropic modification of hydrogen. Some of the evidence points in one direction, some in another. It is too early yet to decide definitely in favour of either hypothesis.
I thought that it was interesting to see hydrogen simply "disappear", and to then see in it's place, a gas with a "carbon spectrum". It reminds me of something that happens in the composition of water with an electric discharge. Decomposed water(9) has the formula H + H2C6, while for composed water (11) it's H2C9. Basically, it looks like the value for carbon has been pumped up after a unit of hydrogen has disappeared. I have wondered if this happens because the hydrogen is somehow converted into carbon in the reaction to make water.
I personally feel that hydrogen is somekind of cyclonic structure. I think alpha particles are actually two hydrogen ions which stay in a pair formation as two cyclones. This is why an alpha particle is doubly charged, because it is made up with two ions. The above explanation of X3 is that it is a "singly charged molecule containing 3 hydrogen atoms". If X3 was made up by 3 hydrogen atoms, as 3 protons, I would expect to find a triple charge, and this does not appear to be the case because X3 has a mass-to-charge ratio of 3:1.
Today we know substance X3 as protonated molecular hydrogen, trihydrogen cation, or H3+. It is one of the most abundant ions in the Universe. H3 is supposed to have two electrons, which under my model, looks very different from the textbook atomic model. This is because I think an electron, or more preferably "electrion", is the same size as a proton. If H3 has two electrions, then this is very exciting because we must be seeing the conversion of hydrogen ions into electrions. I am starting to imagine H3 as a structure made up of two electrions sat either side of one proton. That is, two anticyclones sat either side of a cyclone.
In this formation, the cyclone's charge will be neutralized by the opposite charge of an anticyclone. That means that the charge of the other anticyclone shall be percieved as being dominant over the formation. This might help explain why we see only one unit charge for H3.
If you know me, you probably know how much I like to test ideas wherever possible by seeing if there are any examples in nature. I found the following post on the blog of Cloudman 23. The author goes by the name of Tonie Ansel. "The Coriolis Effect In the Real World – A Tutorial (Part 2) – Cyclones & Anticyclones". I would just like to say thankyou to Tonie for sharing. In his tutorial, Tonie has used an illustration that shows the cyclone Hurricane Ike, squeezed between two anticyclones. You can find the post here, if you like:
Anticyclones are high pressure areas. With weather systems, in high pressure areas, the pressure increases towards the centre from the periphery. Vertical winds are drawn down into the centre of a high pressure system, whereas vertical winds move up the centre of a low pressure area. Low pressure systems are commonly known as cyclones. In the northern hemisphere, cyclones turn counterclockwise while anticyclones turn clockwise (in the southern hemisphere the direction is reversed).
In weather systems, horizontal winds move from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. However, vertical winds move from low pressure areas to high pressure areas. What I'm trying to convey is that the winds are actually performing a loop. If the cyclone and anticyclone are dipolar vortices, then these winds emerge as the current circulating round inside the vortex ring.
Now I'd like to translate these winds, and how they circulate, onto H3. I'd like you to join me in drawing the structure of H3 on a bit of paper. Have three circles in a row. The cyclone in the centre turns counterclockwise, while the anticyclones either side turn clockwise. From left to right, we'll number them 1, 2 and 3; 2 being the cyclone in the middle.
Starting from 1, we draw a line going down and then across to 2. It moves up 2 and goes back down at 3. Now carry the line on. Keep moving down and then back up on 2. Go up 2 and come back down on 1. Okay? From these instructions you might now have some incoherent squibble which looks vaguely suggestive, OR, more hopefully, you are now staring at the symbol for "infinity" - a figure eight on its side. Is that Homer staring at you?
You may well notice that the cyclone between the two anticyclones is basically acting as an idle-wheel. James Clerk-Maxwell knew of the importance of the idle-wheel in the construction of his model for EMR. Maxwell fell upon the idea that the idle-wheels were relatively small compared to the vortices in the aether, and that a stream of these idle-wheels represented an electric current.
I think that it is true that this stream of tiny particles, made up by the fluid of the aether, flows around the atomic vortices of matter and makes them turn. This motion, this resistance to the fluid of the aether, might be the cause of what we see as EMR. The thing is, all EMR has a frequency - electricity on the other hand has no frequency. The frequency we see with AC electricity is man-made by manipulating magnetic poles at the generator, and is not essentially a property of electricity itself. In other words, electricity is not being made by something resisting the aether, but by something which, quite literally, goes with the flow.
If we now return back to this new model for H3, the cyclone is an idle-wheel which serves to grease up the accompanying vortices either side. This harmony in the direction which all 3 vortices follow can only allow for greater and greater speeds. Under the constant applied pressure of the aether, the vortices revolve, generating vertical winds which make a loop. It is these winds which stream around the vortex ring which actually represent electric current. In weather systems, the wind is made up with the fluid of the air, but here, in atomic structure, this fluid is the incompressible fluid of the aether.
I think the fluid of the aether is something like vapourized carbon. These tiny particles are what Tesla referred to as "neutrons". Carbon is essentially neutral, but I think the movement of this fluid from high pressure areas to low pressure areas, AND vice-versa from low pressure areas to high pressure areas, gives the fluid a charge. As the fluid charges from place to place - it becomes electricity.
These currents in the aether exist as winds made out of carbonic fluid. It might help explain how decomposed water (H + H2C6 = 9) appears to gain extra weight in the form of carbon when it becomes composed water (H2C9 = 11). It also might help explain the appearance of a carbonic gas after an electric discharge has passed through a vacuum tube containing hydrogen.
Further still, the currents moving through H3 represent a closed system. It is a continous loop of energy which essentially feeds itself. Under the constant applied pressure of the aether it is acting as a self-perpetual motor. However, an electric discharge is often seen to be short-lived. H3 only has a half-life of about one minute. How is it possible to create a system where the movement of energy can be infinitely maintained?