## Sunday, 14 June 2009

### Steam

Steam, remember, is evaporated water. When water is heated to a temperature of 212°F at atmospheric pressure it turns into steam. If the water is enclosed in a tightly closed vessel such as a boiler the temperature at which the water turns into steam will be higher. In any case, the volume of the steam produced will be very much larger than the volume of the water from which it was produced. At atmospheric pressure, for example, a pound of steam occupies a volume of 26 cubic ft.

Suppose, now, that you had a pound of steam at atmospheric pressure in a closed vessel with a volume of exactly 26 cu. ft. This vessel would be a trifle less than 3 feet on a side – assuming it to be a cube. It would be full of steam. There would be no air. If you suddenly placed this vessel on a large block of ice, or cooled it by spraying cold water on it, what would happen? The steam would condense – it would turn back into water – into one pound of water. This pound of water, however, would occupy only 1/60th of a cubic foot. It would look about like this:

This is very little water. Most of the interior is now occupied by nothing – 99.93 percent of the total volume. This means a vacuum.

The total surface of this cube bas an area of 7,776 sq. in. Since each square inch bas 15 lb. of atmosphere pressing down on it (and with nothing inside to counteract it) the total atmospheric pressure on the cube is now 7,776 × 15 or about 116,640 lb.

If you want to see whether this is really true, try it sometime. Take an ordinary rectangular gallon can with a screw cap closure, fill it with about half inch of water, and bring the water to a boil by placing it on a gas burner for a few minutes. Do this with the screw cap off. Then, when the water is boiling vigorously, suddenly screw the cap on, and then quickly place the can under a stream of cold water. The can will crumple up like so much paper.

This spectacular experiment is one, which anybody can make at home but it is extremely convincing in demonstrating the production of a vacuum by the condensation of steam.
http://www.sirgen.com/primer.html

I wanted to work with this experiment, and to see if there's a different way of looking at it. We seem to all be focused on the forces working from the outside. What if the forces are not crushing the can from the outside though - what if the can is being crushed by forces of suction from the inside?

Could we assume that in a pure vacuum that the aether is a constant pressure of 300,000 km/s, and that there being no atomic vortices to resist it, we would find no wavelength of EMR being emitted? EMR is only emitted by matter. That gives our pure vacuum a frequency of 0 Hz. If the speed of light is written as 1 Hz, that would make a wavelength of 0 Hz faster than the speed of light.

In changing from water to steam we have the same amount of molecules, and the same amount of aether ... so what exactly is shrinking from steam to water? If the can was warmed instead of cooled, the can would have blown outwards - the volume taken up by the steam increases. Looking at it, one way that this expansion and contraction is possible is if the molecules, or at least their spheres of influence, are actually shrinking and expanding.

At standard temperature and pressure, pure steam (unmixed with air, but in equilibrium with liquid water) occupies about 1,600 times the volume of an equal mass of liquid water. We have the same amount of molecules, but the molecules of steam occupy a much greater space. In theory, the aether should be under a higher pressure in the water, water having a higher density than steam. This would mean that steam induces the aether at a lower pressure, in effect the speed of the aether slows down, but then we find we have higher temperatures.

Steam is hot, and ice is cold (no, really?) Ice has a density a bit lower than water. In ice, the same amount of molecules take up a bit more room than those in water. So, one would have to infer that the aether is under a lower pressure in the ice than it is in the water. But huh?! If the aether is under a lower pressure in the steam, then why do we find it hot - certainly not cold?

Water reaches its maximum density around 4 degrees C. What if, at this temperature, this is the smallest a water molecule can go? In ice, if the water molecule is at its smallest capacity, but the water is growing in volume - what the hell is happening? It would suggest that it is the space between molecules which is expanding, and not the molecules themselves. Smaller molecules would offer less resistance to the aether, and we would see lower pressures in the aether because of greater space between molecules.

This insinuates that we are not seeing greater space between molecules in steam. Perhaps it is the molecules which are growing in size. Larger molecules would take up more room, the canyon walls would narrow, and the aether would speed up. Is it possible that the molecules induce the aether at a relatively low pressure - compared to the high pressures of the fluid of the aether which surrounds them? With plenty of rub between molecules, it also gives us heat.

Steam is less dense than air. The same volume of steam is lighter than the same volume of air. It is the pressure of the aether which appears to determine density. Is it the aether at high pressure which makes steam lighter than air - or is it because the molecules are bigger? Or is steam lighter from a combination of the two?

The aether at low pressure in ice allows it to float on water. Gold and tungsten are some of the most dense metals found on Earth - is this density due to the high pressure of aether?

In the case of water, by varying the size of the water molecules we create a pump. The implosive forces where the molecules shrink and generate a vacuum, are just as impressive as when the molecules expand and things blow-up.

If molecules come in all different shapes and sizes, does this start to explain the different frequencies of EMR?