Wednesday, 4 November 2009

Hydrogen Peroxide

When exposed to radiation, water undergoes a breakdown sequence into hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen radicals and assorted oxygen compounds such as ozone which when converted back into oxygen releases great amounts of energy.

Rain combines with ozone in the upper atmosphere. When water and ozone mix, the ozone loses one oxygen molecule to the water and hydrogen peroxide is formed. Hydrogen peroxide is very unstable and breaks down readily into water and a single oxygen molecule.

I think that the common air is a water vapour. I'm interested at what happens between ozone and water, because I think it describes what happens at the interface between ozone and air in the atmosphere.

In water, the weight ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is 1:8. This ratio though actually represents a half volume of decomposed water with an atomic weight of 9. I think water, composed water, actually has an atomic weight of 11. I think that it's possible that oxygen is a hydrocarbon, and that it has the weight ratio of two parts hydrogen to six parts carbon. This makes the formula for one volume of oxygen H4C2 (C=6).

The weight ratio of 1:8 in water describes a half volume of oxygen. I think this therefore reveals the true atomic density of oxygen to be 8. A half volume of oxygen is 8, while a full volume is 16. Therefore, the formula for a half volume of composed water (11) is H2C3 (C=3). In doing so, I am now painfully aware, I have given carbon the value of 3. This value is one quarter the density of one volume of carbon, which is 12. It suggests that a carbon structure begins construction at the atomic weight of 3.

It's just a thought, but I wonder if carbon is basically changing its structure throughout the periodic table? Carbon has integral multiples of 12, so if we start with the atomic weight of 2, carbon might form a structure, such as a triangle, at 3 it might be a square, at 4 a circle, and 6 a pyramid (these shapes do not actually represent anything, I'm simply plucking them from the air). From hereon, the structure takes on multiples of 12, and so 24 could be a 24 sided polygon (which happens to be a icosikaitera, for those who might be curious).

The reason I mention all this is because at the atomic weight of 60, we find that carbon has actually been shown to have taken on the structure of a soccerball, otherwise known as a Buckminsterfullerene, or "Buckyball". Who better to explain Buckyballs, than my old friend Wikipedia?

"The existence of C60 was predicted by Eiji Osawa of Toyohashi University of Technology in a Japanese magazine in 1970. He noticed that the structure of a corannulene molecule was a subset of a soccer-ball shape, and he made the hypothesis that a full ball shape could also exist. His idea was reported in Japanese magazines, but did not reach Europe or America.

With mass spectrometry, discrete peaks were observed corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms. In 1985, Harold Kroto (then of the University of Sussex), James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley, from Rice University, discovered C60, and shortly thereafter came to discover the fullerenes. Kroto, Curl, and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of this class of compounds.

C60 and other fullerenes were later noticed occurring outside the laboratory (e.g., in normal candle soot). By 1991, it was relatively easy to produce gram-sized samples of fullerene powder using the techniques of Donald Huffman and Wolfgang Kr├Ątschmer. Fullerene purification remains a challenge to chemists and to a large extent determines fullerene prices. So-called endohedral fullerenes have ions or small molecules incorporated inside the cage atoms. Fullerene is an unusual reactant in many organic reactions such as the Bingel reaction discovered in 1993. The first nanotubes were obtained in 1991.

Minute quantities of the fullerenes, in the form of C60, C70, C76, and C84 molecules, are produced in nature, hidden in soot and formed by lightning discharges in the atmosphere. Recently, fullerenes were found in a family of minerals known as Shungites in Karelia, Russia."

The atomic weight of ozone is 24. I suspect that ozone is pure phlogiston. If the value of carbon is 3, then I think the formula for ozone could be written as C8. On some advice, I'm experimenting with the idea that ozone could be biatomic, and not triatomic. A biatomic structure could be illustrated more by the formula: 2(C4)

In hydrogen peroxide the weight ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 1:16. That is one volume of oxygen plus one volume of hydrogen. On exposure to air, hydrogen peroxide's extra oxygen molecule is released and the product becomes plain water.

OK, one half volume of water has the atomic weight of 11. To make a volume of hydrogen peroxide we add more oxygen (8) to the water, which gives us a total atomic weight of 19. The formula for hydrogen peroxide, maintaining the value of carbon as 3, is therefore: HC6

I think the common air is water vapour, with an atomic weight of 22. The formula for which is thus HC7. I now want to add hydrogen peroxide (HC6) to the air:

HC7 + HC6 = H2C13

In the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and water, oxygen is released. The formula for oxygen is H2C2

H2C13 - H2C2 = C11

Thus, C11 gives carbon the atomic weight of 33. 33, has been considered by some as the true atomic weight of graphite. 33 is also easily divisible into one and a half volumes of water, 22 and 11 respectively.

Referring back to the top of the page, "when water and ozone mix, the ozone loses one oxygen molecule to the water and hydrogen peroxide is formed". I hope to now generate this reaction in formula. Ozone is written as C8, and water is HC7 :

C8 + HC7 = HC15

Hydrogen peroxide has the formula HC6, therefore:

HC15 - HC6 = C9

C9 would give this carbon structure the atomic weight of 27, which also happens to be shared by aluminium. What am I saying? To be honest I'm pretty unsure myself. If I could picture myself right now, I'd be on a boat out in the middle of the ocean with no sail, paddle, or Kendal mint cake. I could be as bold as to interpret this as suggesting that aluminium, or at least something isomeric to aluminium, is a pure carbon structure that is generated in the reaction between ozone and water.

Aluminium has a unique property in that it forms an oxide layer instantly as soon as it is in contact with air. This layer prevents water from reaching the bare metal. Aluminium is actually a very reactive and flammable metal, but it is normally protected by an inert coating of aluminium oxide. Dissolving the oxide, though, exposes a fresh aluminium surface, which reacts vigorously with air and water.

For a bit of fun, I'm going to try and formulate the reaction between the air (HC7) and aluminium (C9):

HC7 + C9 = HC16

HC16 translates into the atomic weight of 49. Is it possible that the true atomic weight of aluminium oxide is 49? The molecular weight of aluminium oxide is listed as 101.96 g/mol. This molecular weight is actually double the figure for the atomic weight of aluminium oxide, which is something like 51 (this figure is calculated by one volume of aluminium (27) being added to one and a half volumes of oxygen (24)

So we have a discrepancy between what I think the atomic weight of aluminium oxide should be according to this new theory (49), and the atomic weight as given by the more traditional formula (51). I've scoured any number of pages on the web, but I've not yet managed to find evidence of an ACTUAL experiment where the atomic weight of aluminium oxide was measured. I'd be interested to find out what that figure was, and especially if it was nearer 49 than 51.

Many thanks:

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