'Heat' energy is transferred from infrared radiation to an object. Something though, does not quite ring right. EMR does not possess heat energy. EMR is energy, but it actually propagates through a vacuum with no temperature at all. EMR is not a form of heat energy transfer. I don't think infrared radiation carries heat. I think infrared radiation is able to incite matter into releasing heat. If we follow this line of reasoning a little bit further, and say that matter does not possess potential energy, and that potential energy is a property of the aether, then we are drawn to the full conclusion that EMR incites matter to release energy from the aether, which in-turn heats it up.
So far we have seen 'heat energy transfer' from infrared radiation to an object (and discovered there is no such thing!). We are also taught that heat is transferred from atom to atom, and from object to object, but the same idea about the lack of potential energy applies. Matter does not possess potential energy. Potential energy is a property of the aether.
It is supposed that heat flows from matter of a high temperature to matter of a lower temperature. Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from one object to another because of the temperature difference between them. Heat does not transfer from one object to another if they are of the same temperature. This type of energy transfer between objects is known as conduction and/or convection, and it's much slower than heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation. Solids such as metals are good conductors of heat, while gases such as air, are poor conductors of heat.
But none of this heat transfer is taking place, because matter does not possess the potential energy needed to transfer. Something else is happening, and it smacks of sympathetic resonance (resonant energy transfer). Every object has a unique natural frequency of vibration. Vibration can be induced by the direct forcible disturbance of an object, or by the forcible disturbance of the medium in contact with an object (eg. the surrounding air or water). Heat is not being transferred, but rather the vibration is being transferred, and thereby heat is generated. I am reminded of when a soundwave moves through a medium, each particle of the medium vibrates at the same frequency.
Soundwaves travel faster through solids, such as steel, than they do travelling through the air. The velocities of elastic waves in solids are of the order of magnitude of several thousand meters per second (something like ten times the velocity in air). The loudness of sound decreases as it moves through a substance.
Soundwaves are longitudinal waves. A longitudinal wave is one where the vibration at any point is in the same direction as the wave itself is moving. The waveform (pattern of crusts and troughs) moves forward transmitting energy, while the particles of which the medium is composed do not move long distances, but oscillate to and fro. Contrast with transverse waves, where the direction of vibration is perpendicular to that of travel.
EMR is a transverse wave. EMR propagates at the speed of light, something like 300,000 km per second. Sound does not travel anywhere near as fast. In the air, the speed of sound is 330 meters per second. I suspect that the vibration perpendicular to that of travel in an EMR wave is the electric field. It could be that the electric field is generated by charges vibrating from side to side in the cylinder of the double helix. How does this then apply to the oscillation found in a longitudinal wave? We are taught that the oscillation in a longitudinal wave is due to molecules vibrating against one another. I found this site offered a good explanation:
"As a sound wave moves through a medium, each particle of the medium vibrates at the same frequency. This is sensible since each particle vibrates due to the motion of its nearest neighbor. The first particle of the medium begins vibrating, at say 500 Hz, and begins to set the second particle into vibrational motion at the same frequency of 500 Hz. The second particle begins vibrating at 500 Hz and thus sets the third particle of the medium into vibrational motion at 500 Hz. The process continues throughout the medium; each particle vibrates at the same frequency. And of course the frequency at which each particle vibrates is the same as the frequency of the original source of the sound wave. Subsequently, a guitar string vibrating at 500 Hz will set the air particles in the room vibrating at the same frequency of 500 Hz which carries a sound signal to the ear of a listener which is detected as a 500 Hz sound wave. "
If you think this energy transfer of sound seems remarkably similar to heat energy transfer, then I'd say you were right (not that I've never been wrong!). It is said that the shortest soundwave which we can really have comes when successive atoms vibrate opposite to each other, so that the wavelength is twice the distance between 'atoms'. There is good experimental evidence that such frequencies really represent the maximum possible frequencies of acoustical vibrations. Interestingly, this frequency is in the order of magnitude of those found in the infrared vibrations of light waves.
Ultrasound is a cyclic sound pressure (acoustical vibration) with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasonic applications in the medical field have been shown to heat tissue. It is also possible to heat a fluid using ultrasonics, and to obtain a rise of several degrees per minute. Ultrasonics are also used for cleaning:
"Ultrasonic cleaners, sometimes mistakenly called supersonic cleaners, are used at frequencies from 20-40 kHz for jewellery, lenses and other optical parts, watches, dental instruments, surgical instruments, diving regulators and industrial parts. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. The bubbles made by cavitation collapse forming tiny jets directed at the surface. Home ultrasonic cleaners are available and cost about US $60 or more."
If a sound wave is impressed upon a liquid and the intensity is increased, apoint will be reached where cavitation occurs. Cavitation is the formation of a gas bubble in the liquid during the rarefaction cycle. When the compression cycle occurs the gas bubble collapses. During the collapse tremendous pressures are produced. The bubble eventually collapses to a minute fraction of its original size, at which point the gas within dissipates into the surrounding liquid via a rather violent mechanism, which releases a significant amount of energy in the form of an acoustic shock wave and as visible light. At the point of total collapse, the temperature of the vapor within the bubble may be several thousand kelvin, and the pressure several hundred atmospheres. A great example of this process at work, is held by the amazing knock-out blow of the pistol shrimp:
The rarefaction and compression cycles are typical of longitudinal waves. In previous posts we've touched on ultrasonic emulsification, and its implications in the formation of magma. I suspect that gases inside magma are dissolved to a point where they become invisible. I ventured to say that these dissolved gases become what we term 'ions'.
The rarefaction and compression cycles also feel similar to the way electromagnetic waves are produced. It's got me thinking. Perhaps the magnetic field collapses to produce the electric field. Somehow, the double helix that is the magnetic field is expanding to form a 'gas bubble', and is then collapsing to release energy. The electric field is the energy produced by the collapse. If we try and relate this to the original torus, then it begins to look like the vortex is being snapped open and then clamped shut, over and over again. Back and forth, back and forth...