Tuesday, 19 May 2009
Previously, I have said that the aether field is stretched by matter, rather like a cannonball rolling across a blanket would cause the fabric to stretch. Heavier elements, such as uranium, stretch the aether field a good deal more than lighter elements, such as hydrogen, which might be imagined as a dimple on the surface of the aether. With the aether field being stretched in this way, and knowing how much the fluid of the aether prefers equilibrium, then one would assume that the fluid is therefore filling the void created by matter, in its attempts to smooth things over and level the field. Something happens though. The electric fluid does not simply get dumped in the dent made by matter - the electric fluid is induced to flow through the atomic causeway of matter, and in such a manner that makes it impossible for the aether to restore equilibrium - the fluid keeps on flying in and flying out.
Where the aether field is stretched more by heavier elements, we would expect to find that a greater amount of the electric fluid is being induced. Uranium might look something like a water-balloon - with it's outside being stretched to contain large amounts of fluid, and looking fit to burst. Hydrogen, on the other hand, might be a water-balloon containing decidedly less fluid, and looking far more stable, and far less likely to go off in your hands before you even get a chance to throw it.
Before the creation of space-time, the most popular theory was that space was full of waves of energy, the aether, and almost all materials were completely transparent to this sea of radiation, but some elements, such as radium, polonium and uranium absorbed some of this energy and re-emitted it.
I think a prism suggests the existence of an aether field. I think the reason the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum take longer to pass through the glass is because the aether field is being stretched inside the prism. This stretching could be done by any number of atomic vortices which belong to the structure of the glass, and sit in position in the aether field. Perhaps then, the greater the amount the aether field is stretched, then the shorter shall be the wavelengths of EMR emitted by matter.
Apparently, a glass prism absorbs the shorter wavelengths of ultraviolet light - a quartz prism is needed to refract UV light. Are we then saying that quartz has a greater capacity for stretching the aether field? Does the glass really absorb UV light - or is the case that glass simply does not emit UV light, whereas quartz does? (This is something more of a note to self - but the ozone layer is also regarded as absorbing the harmful UV rays in the atmosphere - is it at all relevant?).
EMR is emitted from all matter with a temperature above absolute zero. Normally atoms and molecules emit light at more or less random times, and in random directions and phases. All light created in normal light sources, such as bulbs, candles, neon tubes and even the Sun is generated in this way. Higher frequency EM vibrations or waves (shorter wavelength) carry more energy than lower frequency vibrations or waves (longer wavelengths). Radiation on the short wavelength end of the EMR spectrum - UV, X-rays, and gamma rays - are known as ionizing radiation.
It is supposed that ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. I have wondered in previous posts if ions are actually dissolved gases trapped inside a substance. Wavelengths of EMR longer than UV are often referred to as non-ionizing radiation, and that is that they do not carry enough energy per quantum to ionize atoms or molecules. Instead of producing charged ions when passing through matter, the EMR has sufficient energy only for excitation. In other words, is it possible to say that ionizing radiation emitted by matter is the release of invisible dissolved gases?
Wavelengths shorter than UV tend to be emitted by energetic processes, and therefore belong to more unstable, heavier elements. Gamma rays are produced in the disintergration of radioactive atomic nuclei, and in the decay of certain particles. Gamma rays are not so much as emitted by matter - they are perhaps the breakdown of matter as the fluid of the aether pours in and out of the atomic structure. Has the balloon, so to speak, been filled with too much water?
X-rays have smaller wavelengths and therefore higher energy than UV waves. X-rays were first observed and documented in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, a German scientist who found them quite by accident when experimenting with vacuum tubes. Simply put, an X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that produces X-rays. A high voltage power source is connected across cathode and anode to "accelerate the electrons" inside the tube. But electricity cannot pass through a vacuum - it is the vacuum - the electric fluid of the aether. Electricity needs to be induced by matter, and you won't find matter in a vacuum. Electricity will pass through the glass of a vacuum tube before it even considers passing through the vacuum. Roentgen appears to have thought it was the glass of the vacuum tube which radiated the X-rays. The following is taken from his paper "On a New Kind of Rays" read before the Würzburg Physical and Medical Society, 1895.
"It is known that Lenard, in his investigations on kathode rays, has shown that they belong to the ether, and can pass through all bodies. Concerning the X-rays the same may be said... X-rays, which are not deflected by a magnet, cannot be regarded as kathode rays which have passed through the glass, for that passage cannot, according to Lenard, be the cause of the different deflection of the rays. Hence I conclude that the X-rays are not identical with the kathode rays, but are produced from the kathode rays at the glass surface of the tube.....
A kind of relationship between the new rays and light rays appears to exist; at least the formation of shadows, fluorescence, and the production of chemical action point in this direction. Now it has been known for a long time, that besides the transverse vibrations which account for the phenomena of light, it is possible that longitudinal vibrations should exist in the ether, and, according to the view of some physicists, must exist. It is granted that their existence has not yet been made clear, and their properties are not experimentally demonstrated. Should not the new rays be ascribed to longitudinal waves in the ether?"
Cathode rays are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes. Cathode rays are so named because they are emitted by the negative electrode, or cathode in a tube. I'm repeating current theory here, but basically, when the cathode is heated it creates a cloud of electrons in the vacuum near the surface of the cathode. Most of these electrons will stay near the cathode. But a few will have energy to leap far enough from the cathode to be able to cross the vacuum and strike the anode. German scientists Eilhard Wiederman, Heinrich Hertz, and Goldstein believed they were "aether waves", some new form of EMR.
Adding to the debate was JJ.Thomson, who in 1897, measured the mass of cathode rays, showing they were made of particles , but were around 1800 times lighter than the lightest atom, hydrogen. Therefore they were not atoms, but a new particle which he originally called "corpuscle" but was later named electron. He also showed they were identical with particles given off by photoelectric and radioactive materials. It was quickly recognised that they are the particles that carry electric current in metal wires, and carry the negative electric charge of the atom.
The electron, or cathode ray is therefore found in a vacuum. I don't think these electrons are emitted by the cathode, I think they belong to the vacuum. I think the potential difference between the cathode and the anode forces the aether to flow between the two terminals. Cathode rays apparently travel in straight lines, and I am at once reminded of how the magnetic lines of force between two opposite poles of a horseshoe magnet, once given a dusting with iron filings, also appear as straight lines. I think the high voltages used in the vacuum tube generate a strain which, without the distractions of any matter, visibly affect the aether field. Are cathode rays an intense, pressurized flow of aether?
It's interesting that cathode rays move in only one direction - from the cathode to the anode. I've always suggested magnetic lines of force flow from pole to pole, and not simply from one pole to the other - but here we have cathode rays moving in only one direction. Also, cathode rays themselves do not appear on the EMR spectrum, that is not until they interact with the glass of the vacuum tube and thus become X-rays. There are some notable differences between cathode rays and X-rays. I borrowed the following re-cap from here:
"Differences and similarities between cathode rays and X-rays.
Both cathode rays and X-rays were discovered when discharges from a discharge tube were studied in details. But the rays are completely different from each other.
Cathode rays are charged particles. They are negatively charged electrons. X-rays on the other hand are electromagnetic radiations. X-rays have no charges.
Cathode rays emanate from the cathode itself. X-rays are emitted when high-energy electrons are stopped.
Cathode rays have low penetrating powers. X-rays have high penetrating powers.
Cathode rays travel at the speed given by the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. X-rays always travel at the speed of light.
Cathode rays are deflected by electric and magnetic fields. X-rays are unaffected by both the electric as well as the magnetic fields.
Both rays are capable of ionizing materials though which they pass, especially gases.
Both rays cause fluorescence when they strike any fluorescence material such as zinc sulphide.
Both rays affect photographic plates."
So, it appears EMR does not take shape until it is emitted by matter - it has to be emitted by matter. The higher the pressure of the flow of the aether, then the higher the frequency of the EMR that shall then be emitted by matter. If an atomic dipole sucks down the aether from both ends, and emits EMR at its equator - how and why is all this happening at the constant speed of light?